Instrumented Interconnecteds Intelligent

Timothy Dalton, Nano-Science & Technology Partnership Program Manager, Master Inventor, IBM

Timothy Dalton, Nano-Science & Technology Partnership Program Manager, Master Inventor, IBM

By Timothy Dalton

Photovoltaic cells (the individual units of a solar panel) have been around since the 1970s. But until now, they have not been cost or energy effective enough for widespread adoption as an energy source. IBM Research’s latest foray into solar technology, a second-generation Ultra High Concentrator Photovoltaic (UHCPV) system, converts 30 percent of the sunlight that hits it to Direct Current – versus the 20 percent efficiency of conventional solar panels.

Gen II Ultra High Concentrator Photovoltaic cells installed at IBM Boulder site.

Gen II Ultra High Concentrator Photovoltaic cells installed at the IBM Boulder site.

Now, what started out as a joint project between IBM Research and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) through the KACST IBM Nanotechnology Center of Excellence has branched to sunny spots in the United States – Boulder, CO, and Tucson, AZ.

IBM’s inspiration to develop these new photovoltaics came from researching silicon technology for CMOS microprocessors after a client posed the question “what can [IBM] do with your technology in the field of renewable energy?” during the 2006 Innovation Jam.

This started our Materials Science research down the path of looking for ways to further extend our technology into the green space.

New Materials for Improved Efficiency

Traditional solar cells are simple to manufacture because they’re made of silicon. And they only have one p-n junction, or interface between differently doped silicon layers, to convert sunlight to electricity. So, they’re low cost, but their efficiency drops as temperatures climb. Our UHCPV system, on the other hand, can operate at a solar concentration of 1,600 suns because we utilize a compound semiconductor solar cell based on gallium arsenide (GaAs) in a triple junction (three p-n junctions) configuration. The triple junctions convert more sunlight into electricity than the silicon cells, per square centimeter.

The increased efficiency is not free: triple junction cells cost more to manufacture. But UHCPV systems use less cell area than a flat panel system, and have the additional advantage of being less sensitive to temperature, and maintaining high efficiency at high temperatures.

One “sun” – a measurement term used in the solar energy industry – is equal to the solar power incident at noon on a clear summer day. One sun equals one tenth of a watt of energy on a one centimeter square area.

Following the Sun

Tucson and Boulder were chosen for their good DNI (Direct Normal Incidence) of solar radiation – or simply put, these two cities get a lot of sunlight. Tucson has more than 300 “sunny” days per year, according to the National Climate Data Center. Boulder has more than 200.

For now, UHCPV’s major advantage in solar energy is confined to regions like Tucson and Boulder – clear skies with high DNI. But we’re continuing to optimize the design with hopes of licensing it to a photovoltaic manufacturer that can partner with us to go to market.



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отзывы врачей Слово “шоколад” принуждает людишек расплываться в
улыбке наслаждения с одной стороны, и огорченно охать, представляя будто наверное отразится
потом возьми лицу – с другой.
Особенно это дотрагивается тех,
кто давно с тревогой посматривает на цифры весов.
Значит хотите освободиться с лишних кг и обрести стройную
фигуру, но не имеет возможности
длительно сидеть возьми диете и отказывать для себя в лакомствах?

Имеется один лекарство,
дозволяющее и рыбачку съесть, и пользу получить
- наверное Шоколад для купить шоколад слим для похудения.
Он обладает приятным вкусом и подсобляет расщеплять жирные запасы.

Команда ШОКОЛАДА Работа содержит лишь естественные естественные составляющие.
Главными составляющими является натуральное шоколадное дерево, ягоды годжи,
зеленый кофе и экстракт
гриба линчжи. Лекарство
подходит про ежедневного применения и не владеет противопоказаний.

Устраняет саму причину появления лишнего веса, нормализуя меновые процессы в
организме. Зерна Зеленого Капуцин
Уничтожают аппетит, взбадривают и наполняют энергией
Естественное Какао Ускоряет оксидировка
жиров, усиливает право временно похудения, подавляет тягу к сладкому, вырабатывает нейрогормон ЯГОДЫ АССАИ Содержат цианидин, кой
блокирует развитие жировых клеток – это природный источник антиоксидантов Семена ЧИА Заполняют
энергией, мешают отложению жира в проблематичных участках Концентрат ГРИБА ЛИНЧЖИ Восстанавливает жирной
размен и делает лучше работу только организма.
Снижает уровень холестерина в крови ЯГОДЫ ГОДЖИ Природный жиросжигатель – с ними жир перестает откладываться шоколад слим для похудения состав Полезность Про ОРГАНИЗМА Шоколад содержит только натуральные компоненты и владеет иммуномодулирующим,
противоопухолевым, противовирусным, антибиотическим, гиполипидемическим, гипогликемическим,
гепатопротекторным, генопротекторным, противовоспалительным,
противоаллергенным и антиоксидантным действием.

Дьявол положительно влияет на сердечно-сосудистую,
дыхательную и сердитую порядка.
ChocolateSlim несомненно поможет не только лишь восстановить авторитет, да и улучшит общее положение организма.
Во основные достоинства провианта:
убыстряет стиль; оздоровляет индивидуум; повышает право;
уменьшает потребность;

Posted by: шоколад слим отзывы врачей
May 27, 2015
9:29 pm

Шоколад про похудения слим шоколад для похудения отзывы Словечко “шоколадка” заставляет людей расплываться в улыбке наслаждения
вроде как, и разочарованно вздыхать, доставляя как
это отразится позже на фигуре – с
другой. В особенности это
касается тех, который давно с тревогой поглядывает возьми числа весов.
Означает хотите освободиться с излишних килограммов
и обрести стройную лицо, однако не имеет возможности длительно посиживать возьми диете
и отвергать для себя в сладостях?
Есть одно лекарство, дозволяющее и рыбку скушать, и пользу заполучить – наверное
Шоколад про chocolate slim заказать.
Дьявол владеет лестным вкусом и подсобляет дробить жирные припасы.
Состав ШОКОЛАДА Работа охватывает лишь естественные естественные составляющие.
Основными составляющими является натуральное какао, ягоды годжи, зеленоватый кофе и концентрат гриба линчжи.
Средство подступает про ежедневного применения и
не владеет противопоказаний.
Устраняет саму причину появления лишнего веса,
нормализуя обменные процессы в организме.
Зерна Зеленого Кофе Подавляют потребность,
бодрят и наполняют энергией Натуральное Какао Ускоряет окисление
туков, усиливает иммунитет на время похудения, усмиряет тягу к сладкому, производит нейрогормон ЯГОДЫ АССАИ
Держат цианидин, который блокирует формирование жировых клеток
- наверное естественный родник антиоксидантов Семена ЧИА Заполняют энергией, мешают отложению жира в проблемных участках Концентрат ГРИБА
ЛИНЧЖИ Восстанавливает жировой размен
и улучшает службу только организма.
Понижает степень холестерина
вошло в плоть и кровь ЯГОДЫ ГОДЖИ
Природный жиросжигатель – с ними сало перестает отменяться chocolate slim цена
отзывы Полезность Для ОРГАНИЗМА Шоколадка охватывает лишь естественные составляющие и обладает иммуномодулирующим, противоопухолевым, противовирусным,
антибиотическим, гиполипидемическим, гипогликемическим, гепатопротекторным,
генопротекторным, антивосполительным,
противоаллергенным и антиоксидантным действием.
Он положительно влияет на сердечно-сосудистую,
респирационную и нервную системы.
ChocolateSlim поможет не только лишь нормализовать авторитет, но и
улучшит общее состояние организма.
Вот основные преимущества продукта: убыстряет стиль; оздоровляет индивидуум; увеличивает
иммунитет; уменьшает желание;

Posted by: слим шоколад для похудения отзывы
May 23, 2015
6:37 pm

Как сбросить лишний вес при помощи шоколада?

Сладкоежки, желащие сбросить лишний вес,
шоколад слим противопоказания
понимают, насколько сильной
делается тяга к лакомствам,
как скоро ей оглашается сражение.
тем не менее существует возможность холить себе сладким и одновременно освобождаться от жирных отложенией – шоколадка для похудения
ChocolateSlim снимает возражение между,
казалось бы, несопоставимыми вещами.

Чтоб выписать Шоколад для наполните фигуру и нажмите клавишу “Заказать”.
С вами свяжется свой менеджер про
уточнения условий доставки

Команда и лечебные свойства

Какао.Главным компонентом любого шоколада является шоколадное дерево.
Чем его больше, другими словами,
нежели чернее шоколад, тем лучше.
В шоколадное дерево держатся вещества,
коие положительно влияют на работу сердечно-сосудистой
порядка и нормализуют давление.

недавно шпанские эксперты провели исследование, касающееся состояния здоровья молодых людей с 12
до 17, которые придерживались разнообразных диет и вели здравый
стиль жизни. В результате выяснилось, будто у любителей шоколада численность жировых отложений имелось
существенно ниже, нежели у других.
Разъясняется таковым, что шоколадка убыстряет метаболизм.

Даже невзирая на высокую ценность, он не
дает возможности жиру продавиться в организме в виде отложений.
А также один увлекательное надзор.

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