Instrumented Interconnecteds Intelligent
September, 16th 2015
16:05
 

Arvind Krishna, SVP and Dir., IBM Research

Arvind Krishna, SVP and Dir., IBM Research

By Arvind Krishna

Over the past two decades, the Internet, cloud computing and related technologies have revolutionized many aspects of business and society. These advances have made individuals and organizations more productive, and they have enriched many people’s lives.

Yet the basic mechanics of how people and organizations forge agreements with one another and execute them have not been updated for the 21st century. In fact, with each passing generation we’ve added more middlemen, more processes, more bureaucratic checks and balances, and more layers of complexity to our formal interactions–especially financial transactions. We’re pushing old procedures through new pipes.

This apparatus–the red tape of modern society–extracts a “tax” of many billions of dollars per year on the global economy and businesses.

What can be done? One potential solution is an intriguing technology called blockchain, which is little understood outside a small fraternity of computer scientists. Blockchain provides the technology underpinnings of Bitcoin, the crypto currency that has been the subject of much interest and speculation within the technical, business and law enforcement communities, and in society at large. (IBM is not involved in cryptocurrencies.)

To me, blockchain is the more interesting phenomenon. It’s a completely novel architecture for business–a foundation for building a new generation of transactional applications that establish trust and transparency while streamlining business processes. It has the potential to vastly reduce the cost and complexity of getting things done. Essentially, it could help bring to business processes the openness and hyper efficiency we have come to expect in the Internet Era.

Blockchain-based systems could help radically improve whole industries, beginning with banking and insurance. But its impact could be much broader. It could make a difference whenever valuable assets are transferred from one party to another and whenever you need to know for certain that a piece of digital information — anything from electronic artwork to the terms of a business agreement — is unique and unchangeable by any party without the agreement of all parties.

So, what exactly is blockchain? It’s a distributed ledger shared via a peer-to-peer network that maintains an ever-expanding list of data records. Each participant has a copy of the ledger’s data, and additions to the chain are propagated throughout the network. This way, all participants in an interaction have an up-to-date ledger that reflects the most recent transactions or changes. In this way, Blockchain reduces the need for establishing trust using traditional methods.

Take a business agreement between two or more companies. They can record the terms of that agreement on a blockchain, knowing it will execute and be enforced autonomously (e.g., “if you pay me in under 15 days, then I will give you a discount.”). Nobody is in private control of the ledger and nobody can secretly change the terms of the agreement. So, with blockchain, facts and agreements are recorded certifiably and indelibly, increasing trust, reducing risk, and thus reducing friction in business.

To understand the potential of blockchain, consider how global business is typically transacted today. Say a sheep farm in rural Sweden wants to pay a supplier of sheering equipment in New Zealand. The two businesses use different banks, logistics companies, and currencies, and they might also be subject to different government and industry regulators. So their seemingly simple transaction is actually a lengthy chain of interactions between a number of banks, intermediaries, and auditors. Each party maintains its own systems of record. The result is a complex, inefficient process that’s costly and time consuming.

But what if all the parties from the farmer to the supplier to their respective banks participated in a system using blockchain technology? The entire process could be handled within a single, transparent system shared among all parties, minimizing the potential for human error or malfeasance.  And the entire process could probably be completed in minutes rather than days.

Or consider a quite different business scenario. There’s great potential for blockchain to be combined with Internet of Things technologies. For instance, a refrigerator equipped with sensors and connected to the Internet could use blockchain to manage automated interactions with the external world–anything from ordering and paying for food to arranging for its own software upgrades and tracking its warranty.

We believe blockchain is an extraordinarily important phenomenon, which is why IBM is deeply engaged in moving it forward.

In our view, most blockchain implementations, and the tools surrounding them, aren’t yet ready for many serious business uses.  The concept and architecture are taking form, but some key capabilities and standards are missing or only now emerging. For instance, many enterprise applications require more extensive security capabilities than most of today’s blockchain implementations offer.

A number of companies are developing blockchain implementations, and we expect more to come. We believe that for blockchain to fulfill its full potential, it must based on open technology standards to assure the compatibility and interoperability of systems.  Furthermore, the various blockchain versions should be built using open source software rather than proprietary software, which could be used to suppress competition. Only with openness will blockchain be widely adopted and will innovation flourish.

Already, our research and development teams are working on versions of blockchain that will be suitable for business, drawing upon our research insights and other related open source technologies. They are exploring a variety of blockchain implementations with our clients, working up specifications and preparing to contribute to open source projects that aim to make blockchain ready for business.

Over the years, IBM has helped enterprises harness the latest advances in information technology. We filled that role when the Internet first emerged in the 1990s, and we took the lead in mainstreaming Linux, Eclipse,  Java, Spark and other open source technologies. Now IBM is committed to help make blockchain real for our clients and for business.

Today it’s imperative for the technology industry to work with companies in every industry to build applications to see how blockchain can best be used in business. We need to learn where the approach works and where it doesn’t.  Out of these efforts, the best ideas will emerge and we’ll be able to spot gaps in technology or governance that need to be filled.

As always, IBM will explore these technologies with clients–with the goal of building a new generation of powerful platform technologies and applications that will shape the next era of business.

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75 Comments
 
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e how blockchain can best be used in business. We need to learn where the approach works and where it doesn’t. Out of these efforts, the best ideas will emerge and we’ll be able to spot gaps in technology or governance that need to be filled.


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ésident et directeur d’IBM research, explique cela dans son blog par un exemple : « Payez en moins de 15 jours,


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March 8, 2016
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Good post, Arvind. It seems that the impact of Blockchain-based systems could be much broader whenever valuable assets are transferred from one party to another and when we need to know that a piece of digital information is unchangeable by any party without the agreement of all parties. I hope IBM helps make blockchain real for for businesses soon. Thank you for sharing your post.


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Posted by: Glucoberry Dan Glucocoa
 
September 29, 2015
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It will be interesting to see how the architecture behind Blockchain will be enabled to deal with Linguistic and Cultural dimensions of transactions across linguistic, geographic and cultural boundaries… Swedish sheep farmer dealing with supplier from New Zealand (the example quoted).


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September 25, 2015
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Posted by: Salva
 
September 22, 2015
10:49 am

Thank you for sharing information on where blockchain technology can be applied. Good to here that IBM is already working with clients and developing blockchain solutions with open technologies.


Posted by: Sri Shetty
 
September 22, 2015
10:03 am

While the science and math are nice, the actual situation may not be so simple. There are many regulations and laws governing commerce and banking services as you know. Simply saying that banks and enterprise will now use this and will speed up things to take minutes instead of days may not fit the reality of how the world works today. When you can say bitcoins or such other currency will be adopted by the US Gov as legal tender, I will be more optimistic about such mechanisms. For now, I remain on the side but not seeing this changing the world soon or for a while.


Posted by: John Doe
 
September 21, 2015
4:08 pm

I think IBM has a disruptive opportunity to empower individual citizens to be brokers of their own personal data.

I could have a blockchain generator as small as my phone charger that acts as an independent broker for my personal data. Whenever a marketer wants to know anything about me, we could negotiate a rate and the request would be accompanied by my ‘authorization’ to use this data.

If this device acted as my personality ‘vpn’ then my web behaviors can similarly be controlled and auditing automated to ensure privacy is respected.

This obviously wouldn’t be perfect, but it would place value where it belongs (i.e. in my pocket instead of Mr. Zuc*er6erg’s)

There’s a very interesting little social networking experiment that was produced in the recent Bluemix hackathon called Friendface, check it out :)

https://w3-connections.ibm.com/blogs/BlueHack/entry/friendface_a_secure_social_network?lang=en_us


Posted by: om
 
September 20, 2015
4:43 pm

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Posted by: P Berry
 
September 20, 2015
10:28 am

Yes, I do agree on that it is certainly a novel architecture for business. It should be counted as a foundation new generation of transactional applications with more trust and transparency while streamlining all sorts of processes in a business.


Posted by: Baraut
 
September 18, 2015
11:05 pm

What is new about the concep?
As a concept, at least, a distributed transaction log is not really new, if that is what it is.
But is this concept only made possible today by the fact that participants’ computers are capable to store all past and future transactions indefinitely?
Please explain.


Posted by: Adrian Grigoriu
 
September 18, 2015
5:16 pm

Greatly explained article. We got to maximize reduction of non-productive time from underlying processes and cut down bureaucracy to rather focus on actual business. Glad to see IBM stepping up for this effort !


Posted by: Kavita Sehgal
 
September 18, 2015
3:10 am

Thank you Arvind for the blog on Blockchain. Helped me understand the concept well and visualize its potential and utility.


Posted by: Ajay Warrier
 
September 18, 2015
1:55 am

Very informative, cloud is future !


Posted by: Sumit Kaushal
 
September 17, 2015
10:35 pm

It is a great article and very well explained. Very useful.
Thanks.


Posted by: Chandramohan Chinnadurai
 
September 17, 2015
10:05 pm

Arvind, great explanation of blockchain.


Posted by: Bruce Weed
 
September 17, 2015
6:46 pm

Only the blockchain with the most hashing power is secure.
Which is clearly bitcoin at the moment: https://bitcoinwisdom.com/bitcoin/difficulty

How would you make sure that no one changes entries in your blockchain, if you have an internal blockchain (kinda like an intranet), it could leak into the real world and entries could be modified.


Posted by: Michael
 
September 17, 2015
3:05 pm

Thanks. I saw our word in WSJ yesterday, and I am glad we are getting the word out.


Posted by: Chris Yaldezian
 
September 17, 2015
11:24 am

This is great to see. IBM “gets it”.

The missing piece of the puzzle is a value token which secures the distributed ledger. Bitcoin is an example of this. The fact that a bitcoin has value provides an incentive for blockchain miners to continue to mine it and secure the ledger from malicious actors at the same time.

There are advances over and above bitcoin, such as Ethereum, which uses similar blockchain concepts to provide what is in effect a decentralised machine for processing smart contracts, but this too depends on the fact that its token “ether” has value.

The BIG question is if IBM can produce something innovative enough to overcome the network effects of the current value token. Or will their invention tack itself onto the secure blockchains such as bitcoin or (to a lesser extent) Ethereum.


Posted by: Phil Manville
 
September 17, 2015
10:58 am

Great..one more quick thought..IOT -”Simplified Connected Experience” is the future. This is the underpinning concept in Smart Cities.


Posted by: Jitendranath Palem
 
September 17, 2015
10:51 am

Amazing !! especially this statement right across all industries.. “We’re pushing old procedures through new pipes”…
Simplification and holistic approach is essential.


Posted by: Jitendranath Palem
 
September 17, 2015
6:12 am

It’s interesting to understand the technology deeper. May be it could be used for other purposes. May be for distributed file systems.


Posted by: Alexey
 
September 17, 2015
6:11 am

Glad IBM is openly supporting the move to open source based block chain infrastructure – Right move at the right time.


Posted by: Sridhar Iyengar
 
September 17, 2015
5:26 am

Good article. If we can maintain the traceability of the double entry system across the universe, we may not need proprietary ERP systems.


Posted by: Santosh Prasad
 
September 17, 2015
4:36 am

Great article. This far reaching and potentially disruptive technology has the potential to change business transactions of any kind. It is great the IBM looks at this and brings its best ideas and technologies to make it ready for everyone to use in a secure and reliable manner.


Posted by: Thomas Hager
 
September 17, 2015
3:14 am

Great Entry.. Blockchain has great potential to enable globally efficient transaction processing.. 1 of the key goals of leveraging Analytics..
and yet it presents many challenges for transaction based analytical insight solutions ..

many thanks.


Posted by: Stephen Strebel
 
September 17, 2015
12:15 am

Thanks a ton for this blog, wanted to really get the hang of this concept.


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